Biological weapons use living organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi to cause death or injury. The early biological weapon’s incidents arguably date back to the antiquity. Specialized programs to develop biological weapons’ agents instead of opportunistic employment of infected were truly developed only in the 20th century. Biological weapons are mostly considered of limited value for regular war and were rarely used with meaningful results with a sole exception of Japanese campaign in China during World War II. Biological Weapons Convention constitutes major prohibition regime in this subtype of WMDs and most states adhere to it. However, spread of modern biotechnologies and the perceived rise of global Islamic terrorism put the threat of biological weapons being used by terrorists top on the national security agenda.